4 May 2017 . 4 min read

The Sexist Case Of Adultery Law In India

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Before we begin, first let’s take a brief look at what exactly the law is. Section 497 of the Indian Penal Code (IPC) reads as-

“497. Adultery.—Whoever has sexual intercourse with a person who is and whom he knows or has reason to believe to be the wife of another man, without the consent or connivance of that man, such sexual intercourse not amounting to the offence of rape, is guilty of the offence of adultery, and shall be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to five years, or with fine, or with both. In such case the wife shall not be punishable as an abettor.”

The following things you need to know to get the basic outline of the law:

  1. Men, and not women, are punished for committing adultery.

  2. The maximum punishment is five years with fine.

Sexism Begins

Prima facie it appears that it is sexist towards men because women are not prosecuted for adultery, but men are. Yes, it’s true. And that’s the first and the least sexist thing about it.

Sexism Rises

Adultery law is the most sexist  provision contained in the IPC. Section 497 treats women as property. It treats women as possession. Property and possession, two words which we use when we buy or own stuff. Section 497 does not punish the woman offender but the male offender. And you know why? Because women are properties of their husbands.

If the husband’s property is being used by some random person, without the consent or connivance of the husband, then the person using the property shall be punished. At this point, students of law or persons having a little legal knowledge might say that this is what happens in theft.

In theft, a person dishonestly takes the possession of another without his consent. The same takes place here. A person is having intercourse with someone else’s wife without the husband’s consent. Therefore, the person would be liable because he used the possession of another without asking him.

But, if he takes the consent of the husband, then there’s no crime of adultery. Consent of the husband here matters the most. I’m not making this up.

The very second line of the section says “without the consent or connivance of that man”. However, if the wife has not consented to sexual intercourse, then the act would amount to rape. (Consent simplified for you)

Sexism Part 3

Another, i.e., the third sexist thing about this section is that it gives license to the husband to have intercourse with any unmarried woman or widow. But an unmarried woman or a widow does not come within the purview of this section.

You ask why? Because unmarried women or widows are not anyone’s property yet. They will become mere possession in the eyes of law when they get married.

To conclude: India needs a better adultery law. A law which treats men and women alike. A law which punishes them alike, or maybe does not punishe any of them at all.

Adultery is also a ground for divorce, obviously, and I believe it is futile and unnecessary to make it punishable since both parties are consenting to the act.

The post was originally published on ED Youth Blog


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  • P*****
    Even in married life if women is not happy with her husband and finds love from outside. She willingly goes to have intercourse with her love. In this case, husband should be punished for not satisfying his wife.
  • Anonymous
    This is sexist for both Men and Women. More apparently for Men they being punished and subtly for Women as put forward in this article. This definitely needs a revision or alteration.
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